Quick Answer: What Is The Most Common Genetic Cause Of Mental Retardation?

What are the 4 levels of mental retardation?

The DSM-IV classifies mental retardation into four stages based on severity: mild (IQ score of 50-55 to approximately 70), moderate (IQ score of 30-35 to 50-55), severe (IQ score of 20-25 to 35-40), and profound (IQ score of less than 20-25)..

How can mental retardation be prevented?

Health and family planning, recognition of “at risk” situations, genetic counseling, prenatal care, antenatal diagnosis, neonatal screening and pediatric care are just a few of the preventive actions to safe-guard the birth of normal children and secure normal mental development.

At what age is mental retardation diagnosed?

When is the diagnosis made? The onset of mental retardation is in childhood, before 18 years of age. The diagnosis is generally made after infancy, between the preschool and school-age periods. Sometimes the diagnosis may be made later, at the time when a thorough assessment is performed.

What are some complications of mental retardation?

In children with severe or profound intellectual disability, there may be other health problems as well. These problems may include seizures, mood disorders (anxiety, autism, etc.), motor skills impairment, vision problems, or hearing problems.

What are the types of mental retardation?

Mental retardation comprises five general categories: borderline, mild, moderate, severe and profound.

How does mental retardation happen?

Mental retardation can be a consequence of literally thousands of different causes, which run the gamut from genetic abnormalities or other medical conditions to social, behavioral, or educational problems. There may be more than 1,000 genetic causes alone, and yet these may account for fewer than half of cases.

What is the nature of mental retardation?

Mental retardation (MR) is defined as an overall intelligence quotient lower than 70, associated with functional deficit in adaptive behavior, such as daily-living skills, social skills and communication.

What is the most common cause of mental retardation?

Down’s syndrome is the most common specific cause of mental retardation, followed by the Fragile X syndrome, which mainly affects boys.

What genes cause mental retardation?

Specific examples of metabolic disorders with prominent MRDD include phenylketonuria, maternal phenylketonuria, Lesch-Nyhan, galactosemia, and adrenoleukodystrophy. o Down Syndrome is the leading genetic cause of mental retardation, occurring in about 1/800-1000 births.

Is mental retardation recessive gene?

The mental retardation gene CC2D1A/Freud-1 encodes a long isoform that binds conserved DNA elements to repress gene transcription. A defect in the ionotropic glutamate receptor 6 gene (GRIK2) is associated with autosomal recessive mental retardation.

Which genetic disorder which is the most commonly inherited cause of mental retardation?

Among genetic disorders, Fragile X syndrome and Down syndrome are the commonest causes of mental retardation. Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is an inherited form of mental retardation. FXS is estimated to affect 1 in 2,500 males and 1 in 8,000 females.

What are signs of low IQ?

Lower than average scores on IQ tests. Difficulties talking or talking late….IQ 50-70.Slower than normal in all areas.Can conform socially.Can acquire daily task skills.Integrated in society.No unusual physical signs.Can acquire practical skills.Reading and math skills up to grades 3-6.

What is mental retardation called now?

In the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5), the APA replaced “mental retardation” with “intellectual disability (intellectual developmental disorder).” The APA included the parenthetical name “(intellectual developmental disorder)” to indicate that the diagnosed deficits …

What is the secondary prevention of mental retardation?

Secondary preventive medicine involves early identification and treatment of a disease to reduce its duration and/or severity. Tertiary prevention limits the degree of disability and fosters rehabilitation in chronic diseases.

What is non syndromic mental retardation?

Nonsyndromic mental retardation (NSMR) is the diagnosis of exclusion in mentally retarded individuals who do not have major physical abnormalities, dysmorphism or neurological abnormalities. … An autosomal recessive mode of inheritance may account for nearly a quarter of all individuals with NSMR.

Is Autism Genetic?

Autism is strongly genetic Families with one child with autism have an increased risk of having another child with autism when compared with the general population.

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